**What is a PID controller?**

A PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) controller is a common instrument used in industrial control applications. A PID controller can be used for regulation of speed, temperature, flow, pressure and other process variables. Field mounted PID controllers can be placed close to the sensor or the control regulation device and be monitored centrally using a SCADA system.

Example: Temperature Control using a Digital PID controller

A typical PID temperature controller application could be to continuously vary a regulator which can alter a process temperature. This may be a pulsed switching device for electrical heaters or by opening and closing a gas valve. A heat only PID temperature controller uses a reverse output action, i.e. more power is applied when the temperature is below the setpoint and less power when above. PID control for injection and extrusion applications often employ additional cooling control outputs and usually require multiple controllers.

A PID controller (sometimes called a three term controller) reads the sensor signal, normally from a thermocouple or RTD, and converts the measurement to engineering units e.g. Degrees C. It then subtracts the measurement from a desired setpoint to determine an error.

The error is acted upon by the three (P, I & D) terms simultaneously:

PID Controller Theory

The following section examines PID controller theory and provides further explanation of the question `how do PID controllers work'.

Proportional (Gain)

The error is multiplied by a negative (for reverse action) proportional constant P, and added to the current output. P represents the band over which a controller's output is proportional to the error of the system. E.g. for a heater, a controller with a proportional band of 10 deg C and a setpoint of 100 deg C would have an output of 100% up to 90 deg C, 50% at 95 Deg C and 10% at 99 deg C. If the temperature overshoots the setpoint value, the heating power would be cut back further. Proportional only control can provide a stable process temperature but there will always be an error between the required setpoint and the actual process temperature.

Integral (Reset)

The error is integrated (averaged) over a period of time, and then multiplied by a constant I, and added to the current control output. I represents the steady state error of the system and will remove setpoint / measured value errors. For many applications Proportional + Integral control will be satisfactory with good stability and at the desired setpoint.

Derivative (Rate)

The rate of change of the error is calculated with respect to time, multiplied by another constant D, and added to the output. The derivative term is used to determine a controller's response to a change or disturbance of the process temperature (e.g. opening an oven door). The larger the derivative term, the more rapidly the controller will respond to changes in the process value.

Tuning of PID Controller Terms

The P, I and D terms need to be "tuned" to suit the dynamics of the process being controlled. Any of the terms described above can cause the process to be unstable, or very slow to control, if not correctly set. These days temperature control using digital PID controllers have automatic auto-tune functions. During the auto-tune period the PID controller controls the power to the process and measures the rate of change, overshoot and response time of the plant. This is often based on the Zeigler-Nichols method of calculating controller term values. Once the auto-tune period is completed the P, I & D values are stored and used by the PID controller.

Joe Crew is the Product Manager at Data Track Process Instruments Ltd. Data Track manufactures digital panel meters, large number displays, PID controllers, signal conditioners and remote data acquisition systems for the process and control industry. Data Track can also supply HMI touchscreen operator panels and SCADA software. The Tracker 300 series of PID Controllers are fully configurable by PC software and feature universal input, single loop integrity, autotune PID, heat / cool control actions and condition monitoring features.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Joe_Crew

### Model-based Tuning Methods for Pid Controllers

**Author: BIN**

The manner in which a measured process variable responds over time to changes in the controller output signal is fundamental to the ** design and tuning of a PID controller**. The best way to learn about the dynamic behavior of a process is to perform experiments, commonly referred to as "bump tests." Critical to success is that the process data generated by the bump test be descriptive of

**. Discussed are the qualities required for "good" dynamic data and methods for modeling the dynamic data for controller design. Parameters from the dynamic model are not only used in correlations to compute tuning values, but also provide insight into controller design parameters such as loop sample time and whether dead time presents a performance challenge. It is becoming increasingly common for dynamic studies to be performed with the controller in automatic (closed loop). For closed loop studies, the dynamic data is generated by bumping the set point. The method for using closed loop data is illustrated. Concepts in this work are illustrated using a level control simulation.**

*actual process behavior***FORM OF THE CONTROLLER**

The methods discussed here apply to the complete family of PID algorithms. Examples presented will explore the most popular controller of the PID family, the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller:

In this controller, u(t) is the controller output and is the controller bias. The tuning parameters are controller gain, , and reset time, . Because is in the denominator, smaller values of reset time provide a larger weight to (increase the influence of) the integral term.

**CONTROLLER DESIGN PROCEDURE**

Designing any controller from the family of PID algorithms entails the following steps:

specifying the design level of operation,

collecting dynamic process data as near as practical to this design level,

fitting a first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model to the process data, and

using the resulting model parameters in a correlation to obtain initial controller tuning values.

The form of the FOPDT dynamic model is:

[2]

where y(t) is the measured process variable and u(t) is the controller output signal. When Eq. 2 is fit to the test data, the all-important parameters that describe the dynamic behavior of the process result:

Steady State Process Gain,

Overall Process Time Constant,

Apparent Dead Time,

These three model parameters are important because they are used in correlations to compute initial tuning values for a variety of controllers [1]. The model parameters are also important because:

the sign of indicates the sense of the controller (+ reverse acting; – direct acting)

the size of indicates the maximum desirable loop sample time (be sure sample time )

the ratio indicates whether a Smith predictor would show benefit (useful if )

the dynamic model itself can be employed within the architecture of feed forward, Smith predictor, decoupling and other model-based controller strategies.

**DEFINING GOOD PROCESS TEST DATA**

As discussed above, the collection and analysis of dynamic process data are critical steps in controller design and tuning. A "good" set of data contains controller output to measured process variable data that is descriptive of the dynamic character of the process. To obtain such a data set, the answer to all of these questions about your data should be "yes" [1]. Ultimately, it is your responsibility to consider these steps to ensure success.

Was the process at steady state before data collection started?

Suppose a controller output change forces a dynamic response in a process, but the data file only shows the tail end of the response without showing the actual controller output change that caused the dynamics in the first place. Popular modeling tools will indeed fit a model to this data, but it will skew the fit in an attempt to account for an unseen "invisible force." This model will not be descriptive of your actual process and hence of little value for control. To avoid this problem, it is important that data collection begin only after the process has settled out. The modeling tool can then properly account for all process variations when fitting the model.

Did the test dynamics clearly dominate the process noise?

When generating dynamic process data, it is important that the change in controller output cause a

response in the process that clearly dominates the measurement noise. A rule of thumb is to define a

noise band of ±3 standard deviations of the random error around the process variable during steady

operation. Then, when during data collection, the change in controller output should force the process variable to move at least ten times this noise band (the signal to noise ratio should be greater than ten). If you meet or exceed this requirement, the resulting process data set will be rich in the dynamic information needed for controller design.

Were the disturbances quiet during the dynamic test?

It is essential that the test data contain process variable dynamics that have been clearly (and in the ideal world exclusively) forced by changes in the controller output as discussed in step 2. Dynamics caused by unmeasured disturbances can seriously degrade the accuracy of an analysis because the modeling tool will model those behaviors as if they were the result of changes in the controller output signal. In fact, a model fit can look perfect, yet a disturbance that occurred during data collection can cause the model fit to be nonsense. If you suspect that a disturbance event has corrupted test data, it is conservative to rerun the test.

Did the model fit appear to visually approximate the data plot?

It is important that the modeling tool display a plot that shows the model fit on top of the data. If the two lines don't look similar, then the model fit is suspect. Of course, as discussed in step 3, if the data has been corrupted by unmeasured disturbances, the model fit can look great yet the usefulness of the analysis can be compromised.

**NOISE BAND AND SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO**

When generating dynamic process data, it is important that the change in the controller output signal causes a response in the measured process variable that clearly dominates the measurement noise. One way to quantify the amount of noise in the measured process variable is with a noise band. As illustrated in Fig. 1, a noise band is based on the standard deviation of the random error in the measurement signal when the controller output is constant and the process is at steady state. Here the noise band is defined as ±3 standard deviations of the measurement noise around the steady state of the measured process variable (99.7% of the signal trace is contained within the noise band). While other definitions of the noise band have been proposed, this definition is conservative when used for controller design.

When generating dynamic process data, the change in controller output should cause the measured process variable to move at least ten times the size of the noise band. Expressed concisely, the signal to noise ratio should be greater than ten. In Fig. 1, the noise band is 0.25°C. Hence, the controller output should be moved far and fast enough during a test to cause the measured exit temperature to move at least 2.5°C. This is a minimum specification. In practice it is conservative to exceed this value.

Figure 1 – Noise Band Encompasses ± 3 Standard Deviations Of The Measurement Noise

**CONTROLLER TUNING FROM CORRELATIONS**

The recommended tuning correlations for controllers from the PID family are the Internal Model Control (IMC) relations [1]. These are an extension of the popular lambda tuning correlations and include the added sophistication of directly accounting for dead time in the tuning computations.

The first step in using the IMC (lambda) tuning correlations is to compute, , the closed loop time constant. All time constants describe the speed or quickness of a response. The closed loop time constant describes the desired speed or quickness of a controller in responding to a set point change. Hence, a small (a short response time) implies an aggressive or quickly responding controller. The closed loop time constants are computed as:

Aggressive Tuning: (See online version for picture of formula)

Moderate Tuning: ("")

Conservative Tuning: ("")

Final tuning is verified on-line and may require tweaking. If the process is responding sluggishly to disturbances and changes in the set point, the controller gain is too small and/or the reset time is too large. Conversely, if the process is responding quickly and is oscillating to a degree that makes you uncomfortable, the controller gain is too large and/or the reset time is too small.

EXAMPLEs: In online copy

**PI Controller Tuning Map**

Figure 6 – How PI controller tuning parameters impact set point tracking performance

**CONCLUSIONS**

Understanding the dynamic behavior of a process is essential to the proper design and tuning of a PID controller. The recommended design and tuning methodology is to: step, pulse or otherwise perturb the controller output near the design level of operation, record the controller output and measured process variable data as the process responds, and fit a first order plus dead time (FOPDT) dynamic model to this process data, use the dynamic model parameters in a correlation to compute P-Only, PI, PID and PID with Filter test your controller to ensure satisfactory performance.

**LITERATURE CITED**1. Cooper, Douglas, "Practical Process Control Using Control Station," Published by Control Station,Inc, Storrs, CT (2004).

For more information about model-based tuning techniques and technologies, please see our other resources below:

PID Control – Practical Process Control Training (2 Day Workshop)

http://www.bin95.com/process_control_atlanta_training.htm

Complete list of authors:

Jeffrey Arbogast – Department of Chemical Engineering

Douglas J. Cooper, PhD – Control Station, Inc.

Robert C. Rice, PhD – Control Station, Inc.

To see the full online version with pictures, please visit http://www.bin95.com/PID_Controller_Design.htm

**About the Author:**

More from these authors and much more. please see ”More PID TRaining resources”...

Article Source: ArticlesBase.com - Model-based Tuning Methods for Pid Controllers