Tuesday, April 28, 2009

servo motor control-Velocity Profiling

A velocity profile is a graph of the velocity of a motor vs. time. The area inside the curve that the velocity profile creates is the distance traveled. Velocity profiling is useful for applications where specific velocities are necessary at specific times. Two typical velocity profiles are shown in the following figures.

These two figures are both examples of velocity profiles that can be implemented using the FlexMotion hardware and software. In the first example, the motor simply accelerates to a target velocity at a specified acceleration, runs at the target velocity, and then decelerates after a certain amount of time. In the second example, the motor accelerates to a certain velocity, runs at that target velocity for a period of time, accelerates to a higher velocity, then travels at that velocity for a period of time, and then decelerates to zero.

National Instruments - Fundamentals of Motion Control

Creation of velocity profile using s-curves

In this paper an approach is proposed for velocity profile control of an AC motor. The dynamic control algorithms for calculation and estimation of the S-curve profile adapt in real time to variations in system behavior to improve their performance.

The S-curve velocity profile is similar to trapezoidal, and in this case, trapezium sides are replaced by S-curves, which enables smoother velocity transitions in acceleration and deceleration periods [1, 9].

The first order trapezoidal velocity profile is a typical point-to-point move. An
axis accelerates from rest to a given velocity at a constant rate. Then traverses, or slews, to a certain point where it decelerates at a constant rate until finally, the end position is reached and the axis will come to a rest. Sometimes the slew velocity and the end position can be changed on the fly. The S-curve velocity profile can be represented as a second-order polynomial in velocity. We have an extra term here – jerk (jerk is a derivative of acceleration and a measure of impact). The second order S-curve provides complete flexibility in the control of profiles for smoothing motion and eliminating jerk from mechanical systems. The degree of S-curve on a motion
profile is controlled by separate acceleration and deceleration smoothing (jerk-limit) factors.

Fig. S-curve profile with symmetrical acceleration and deceleration periods

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